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Jonklaas J, Bianco AC, Bauer AJ, Burman KD, Cappola AR, Celi FS, Cooper DS, Kim BW, Peeters RP, Rosenthal MS, Sawka AM; American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the american thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement. Thyroid. 2014 Dec;24(12):1670-751. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0028. PubMed PMID: 25266247; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4267409.

1) BACKGROUND: A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light ...

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Colucci P, Yue CS, Ducharme M, Benvenga S. A Review of the Pharmacokinetics of Levothyroxine for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism. Eur Endocrinol. 2013 Mar;9(1):40-47. doi: 10.17925/EE.2013.09.01.40. Epub 2013 Mar 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 30349610; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6193522.




2) Thyroxine hormone has been recognised since the early part of the nineteenth century and levothyroxine has been ...

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Brent GA. Mechanisms of thyroid hormone action. J Clin Invest. 2012 Sep;122(9):3035-43. doi: 10.1172/JCI60047. Epub 2012 Sep 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 22945636; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3433956.







3) Our understanding of thyroid hormone action has been substantially altered by recent clinical observations ...

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Yen PM. Physiological and molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. Physiol Rev. 2001 Jul;81(3):1097-142. Review. PubMed PMID: 11427693.









4) Thyroid hormones (THs) play critical roles in the differentiation, growth, metabolism, and physiological function ...

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Zoeller RT, Tan SW, Tyl RW. General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;37(1-2):11-53. Review. PubMed PMID: 17364704.









5) This article reviews the thyroid system, mainly from a mammalian standpoint. However, the thyroid system is highly ...

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Garber JR, Cobin RH, Gharib H, Hennessey JV, Klein I, Mechanick JI, Pessah-Pollack R, Singer PA, Woeber KA; American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists And American Thyroid Association Taskforce On Hypothyroidism In Adults. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2012 Dec;22(12):1200-35. doi: 10.1089/thy.2012.0205. Epub 2012 Nov 6. Erratum in: Thyroid. 2013 Feb;23(2):251. Thyroid. 2013 Jan;23(1):129. PubMed PMID: 22954017.

6) BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has multiple etiologies and manifestations. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate ...

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Spencer CA, LoPresti JS, Patel A, Guttler RB, Eigen A, Shen D, Gray D, Nicoloff JT. Applications of a new chemiluminometric thyrotropin assay to subnormal measurement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Feb;70(2):453-60. PubMed PMID: 2105333.

7) A new immunochemiluminometric TSH assay (ICMA) was shown to offer improved analytical (+2 SD of zero) and functional ...

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Braverman LE, Ingbar SH, Sterling K. Conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in athyreotic human subjects. J Clin Invest. 1970 May;49(5):855-64. PubMed PMID: 4986007; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC535757.


8) Studies of the possibility that thyroxine (T4) is converted to 3.5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) in the extrathyroidal tissues in man have been ...

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Braverman LE, Vagenakis A, Downs P, Foster AE, Sterling K, Ingbar SH. Effects of replacement doses of sodium L-thyroxine on the peripheral metabolism of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in man. J Clin Invest. 1973 May;52(5):1010-7. PubMed PMID: 4700481; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC302354.

9) Studies of the effect of L-thyroxine administration (0.3 mg daily for 7-9 wk) on the peripheral metabolism of (131)I-labeled ...

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Saberi M, Utiger RD. Serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin concentrations during thyroxine and triiodothyronine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1974 Nov;39(5):923-7. PubMed PMID: 4422006.

10) Measurements of serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were made ...

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Khandelwal D, Tandon N. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism: who to treat and how. Drugs. 2012 Jan 1;72(1):17-33. doi: 10.2165/11598070-000000000-00000. Review. PubMed PMID: 22191793.

11) Hypothyroidism denotes deficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland and can be primary ...

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Wiersinga WM. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Horm Res. 2001;56 Suppl 1:74-81. Review. PubMed PMID: 11786691.


12) requires twice-daily administration in view of its short half-life. Synthetic levothyroxine (L-T(4)) has many ...

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Gottwald-Hostalek U, Uhl W, Wolna P, Kahaly GJ. New levothyroxine formulation meeting 95-105% specification over the whole shelf-life: results from two pharmacokinetic trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2017 Feb;33(2):169-174. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2016.1246434. Epub 2016 Oct 21. PubMed PMID: 27718637.

13) OBJECTIVE: Small levothyroxine (L-T4) dose changes can lead to significant clinical effects. ...

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Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) 2013Levothyroxine Tablet Products: A Review of Clinical & Quality Considerations.


14) The review started in January 2011 and MHRA reviewed medical and scientific literature to assess: ...

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The United States Pharmacopeial Convention 2009 Current USP monograph ofLevothyroxine Sodium Tablets (published in Revision Builletin, Official February1, 2010)


15) The review started in January 2011 and MHRA reviewed medical and scientific literature to assess: ...

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Dave JA, Klisiewicz A, Bayat Z et al. SEMDSA/ACE-SA Guideline for theManagement of Hypothyroidism in Adults. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolismand Diabetes of South Africa 2015;20:18-26

16) Background: Hypothyroidism is a common clinical condition confronting all healthcare practitioners ...




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Okosieme O, Gilbert J, Abraham P, Boelaert K, Dayan C, Gurnell M, Leese G, McCabe C, Perros P, Smith V, Williams G, Vanderpump M. Management of primary hypothyroidism: statement by the British Thyroid Association Executive Committee. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Jun;84(6):799-808. doi: 10.1111/cen.12824. Epub 2015 Jun 25. Review. PubMed PMID: 26010808.

17) The management of primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine (L-T4) is simple, effective and safe, and most patients report ...

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Pearce SH, Brabant G, Duntas LH, Monzani F, Peeters RP, Razvi S, Wemeau JL. 2013 ETA Guideline: Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Eur Thyroid J. 2013 Dec;2(4):215-28. doi: 10.1159/000356507. Epub 2013 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 24783053; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3923601.


18) Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) should be considered in two categories according to the elevation in serum ...

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Madan N, Tiwari N, Stampfer M, Schubart U. Hypothyroid heart: myxoedema as a cause of reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. BMJ Case Rep. 2015 Oct 14;2015. pii: bcr2015212045. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2015-212045. PubMed PMID: 26468223; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4611478.

19) Hypothyroidism may cause several cardiac manifestations including conduction abnormalities, ...

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Vaidya B, Pearce SH. Management of hypothyroidism in adults. BMJ. 2008 Jul 28;337:a801. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a801. Review. PubMed PMID: 18662921.



19) Hypothyroidism is one of the commonest chronic disorders in Western populations. In the United Kingdom, ...

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